Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Update ubuntu via command line

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Which Linux Version, which Kernel version i am running?

To find out what version of Linux (distro) you are running, enter the following command at the shell prompt:
$ cat /etc/*-release
Sample output on RHEL 5:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5 (Tikanga)

Sample outputs on Ubuntu v7.10:


lsb_release Command

The lsb_release command displays certain LSB (Linux Standard Base) and distribution-specific information. Type the following command:
$ lsb_release -a

Sample outputs:

No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Debian
Description: Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.1 (squeeze)
Release: 6.0.1
Codename: squeeze

How Do I Find Out My Kernel Version?

Type the following command:
$ uname -mrs

Sample outputs:

Linux 2.6.32-5-amd64 x86_64

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Installing Apache, MySQL, PHP in CentOS 5.5 on Rackspace Cloud

Most of cloud users prefer Rackspace Cloud for its better service and cost effectiveness…
All commands are performed as root to install Apache, MySQL, PHP in CentOS 5.5 Server on Rackspace Cloud.

Install Apache

# sudo yum install httpd mod_ssl

Configure ServerName
# sudo /etc/init.d/httpd start

Remove Error
Starting httpd: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using xx.xx.xxx.xx for ServerName

# sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Add server name after #ServerName www.example.com:80

ServerName svnlabs

# sudo /etc/init.d/httpd reload

By default port 80 is blocked on server, enable in iptables…
# iptables -I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT

Chkconfig to start automatically if the Cloud Server is rebooted.

# sudo /sbin/chkconfig httpd on

Install MySQL

# yum install mysql-server
# /etc/init.d/mysqld start

Install PHP

Edit Repo file
# sudo vi /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo

add at last

name=CentOS-5 Testing

now run
# yum install php php-common php-gd php-mcrypt php-pear php-pecl-memcache php-mhash php-mysql php-xml php-mbstring

Install PhpMyAdmin

# cd /var/www/html
# wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/phpmyadmin/phpMyAdmin/3.3.6/phpMyAdmin-3.3.6-english.tar.gz?r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phpmyadmin.net%2Fhome_page%2Fdownloads.php&ts=1283745912&use_mirror=voxel

# tar zxvf phpMyAdmin-3.3.6-english.tar.gz
# mv phpMyAdmin-3.3.6-english phpmyadmin
# cd phpmyadmin
# cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php

Edit config.inc.php for random string $cfg['blowfish_secret'] = ‘RandomStringHere’;

Restart server
# service httpd restart

use the following in the file config.inc.php of phpMyAdmin to restrict access to from remote machines:

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['order'] = 'deny,allow';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules'][] = 'allow % from';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules'][] = 'deny % from all';

This means that only users logged into my laptop are allowed to see the phpMyAdmin pages in their browser. The percent sign (%) stands for "all users".

Sunday, August 7, 2011

Moving an EC2 Instance to another Size

Instead of starting a new instance and having to configure it from scratch, you are able to simply resize the existing instance. In this example you resize a micro instance to a small instance.


1. You must be running an EBS boot instance (not instance-store or S3-based AMI). Any files on ephemeral storage (e.g., /mnt) will be lost.

2. You can only move to a different instance type of the same architecture (32-bit or 64-bit).

3. The private and initial public IP addresses of the instance will be different when it is running on the new hardware. Use an Elastic IP Address to keep the public IP address the same.

4. There will be a short outage while the instance is moved to new hardware (roughly equivalent to the reboot time of normal hardware).


Run a new t1.micro Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid instance to be our demo. I recommend uploading your own ssh key first.

instance_id=$(ec2-run-instances --instance-type t1.micro --key $USER ami-3e02f257 |
egrep ^INSTANCE | cut -f2)

Wait until it is running and perhaps log in to install software or touch some files so you know it’s your instance. When you are ready, stop the t1.micro instance:

ec2-stop-instances $instance_id

At this point in a normal environment, you might want to create an EBS snapshot AMI of the instance for backup purposes in the event that anything goes wrong. (See: ec2-create-image)

While the EBS boot instance is stopped, switch the instance type from t1.micro to m1.small:

ec2-modify-instance-attribute --instance-type m1.small $instance_id

Start the instance using its new m1.small type:

ec2-start-instances $instance_id

Wait until it is running (again), then log in to verify that it is the same instance with all your software and data. If you were using an Elastic IP address with the instance, it would need to be reassociated after the instance is started.

Eventually, you’ll discover that an m1.small isn’t all that powerful either for moderate loads, so you’ll want to upgrade to a c1.medium, which for many purposes is a great size. It offers 5X the CPU of an m1.small for only 2X the price.

Unfortunately, with a 32-bit instance, c1.medium is as high as you can currently go as of this writing. You’ll need to switch over to a new instance running a 64-bit AMI if you want to go larger.

Vice Versa:

Though we often think “scaling” means moving to larger/faster/more hardware, Amazon EC2 has shown us that it is equally valuable to be able to scale down when we no longer need the extra capacity. The above approach can be used to move your instances to smaller instance types to reduce costs.

If you run this demo, you will be charged for 1 hour of t1.micro instance time plus 1 hour of m1.small instance time, plus fractions of a penny in EBS volume and IO charges. That’s slightly more than a dime.

If you do not need the example instance anymore do not forget to delete it:

ec2-terminate-instances $instance_id

Tuesday, August 2, 2011

Install Alfresco on Rackspace Cloud with Bitnami Stack

Create new (centos) server at rackspace with at minimal 512 MB RAM

yum update

Then you install the lamp stack and alfresco stack form bitnami:


chmod +x bitnami-lampstack-5.3.6-0-linux-x64-installer.bin


wget http://bitnami.org/files/stacks/alfresco/3.4.d-1/bitnami-alfresco-3.4.d-1-linux-x64-installer.bin

chmod +x bitnami-alfresco-3.4.d-1-linux-x64-installer.bin

./chmod +x bitnami-alfresco-3.4.d-1-linux-x64-installer.bin
if sql port 3306 is occupied try nother one e.g. 3308